Muhammad–yar Sultanov was a religious leader.
He was born in 1837 in Masteevo village (currently nonexistent, it was located in the territory of the modern Aktanysh district of the Republic of Tatarstan). He graduated from gymnasium in Kazan, then entered the law faculty of Kazan University in 1856, but expelled a year later due to illness. In 1857-1859, Sultanov served in the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army, was the head of the 20th and 7th cantons of the Ufa province in 1861-1866. In 1866, he completed his military service and retired with the rank of second lieutenant. In 1866-1885, Sultanov acted as a conciliator of justice of peace in the Menzelinsk and Belebeevsk districts of the Ufa province. In 1886, he was appointed mufti of the Orenburg Mohammedan Spiritual Assembly by decree of the emperor. Under Sultanov, the activities of the Spiritual Assembly were reorganized: since 1889, the mufti received the right to participate in the election of qadi, as a result of which, well-known Tatar educators R. Fakhretdin, K. Gabashi, R. Ibragimov were elected at different times.
Sultanov performed Hajj in 1893. As an official representative of Russian Muslims, the Turkish Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1876–1909) welcomed him and awarded him the Turkish order. With the support of Sultanov in Ufa in 1906, the Madrasah Galiya was opened. Sultanov is one of the founders of the Maglyumate Mahkamai Argyyai Yrynburgiya magazine (1908). Sultanov was criticized by representatives of both Qadimism and Jadidism for his lack of theological education and inconsistency in defending the interests of Muslims. He was awarded with the 1st class St. Anna order, 1st class St. Stanislav order and medal. He died in July 12, 1915 in Ufa, and was buried in the courtyard of the Ufa Cathedral Mosque.